Laikipia Water Strategy








Land and Water Grabbing in an East African Coastal Wetland: The Case of the Tana Delta

The Communal Forest, Wetland, Rangeland and Agricultural Landscape Mosaics of the Lower Tana, Kenya: a Socio-ecological entity in Peril

Range Extension, Imminent Threats and Conservation Options for Two Endangered Primates:
The Tana River Red Colobus Procolobus rufomitratus rufomitratus (Peters, 1879) and the Tana River Mangabey Cercocebus galeritus (Peters, 1879) in the Lower Tana Floodplain and Delta, Kenya

The Importance of Flexibility: An Analysis of the Large-Scale Tana-Delta Irrigation Project in Kenya, Implemented Under an Estate System

Pangani River Basin Flow Assessment - Specialist Study

Kibwezi Forest and Umani springs:pipe dream or innovative Conservation?


The Flora of Kibwezi Forest Reserve, Makueni County



Gichuki, N.N. and  Denis, A.U. (2012) Ecologically sustainable technologies in Africa. Hekima Review Journal, January 2013.


Denis, A.U. and Gichuki, N.N. (2012). Effects of Legume-based Rotational Cropping on Rhizobia Assemblage in an Irrigated Rangeland in Southern Kenya. Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability. Link: http/


Otieno N.E., Gichuki, N.N., Farwig N. and Kiboi, S. (2011). The role of farm structure on bird assemblages around a tropical rainforest. African Journal of Ecology (44): 1-8


Ali, A.A., Gitau A.N., Hassan M.A, Gumbe L.O. and Gichuki N.N. (2010). Household waste generation and management practices in Nairobi, Kenya. Waste Management (Elsevier) 30: 1752-1755.


Nyamweya, H. N. and Gichuki, N.N (2010).  Effects of plant structure on butterfly diversity in Mt. Marsabit Forest “ northern Kenya.  African Journal of Ecology, 48: 304-312.


Gichuki, N.N. (2009). Characteristics of fish-eating birds in Lake Baringo, Kenya. Samaki News 6(1): 55-57


Barasa F.B., Mwangi, E.M. and Gichuki, N,N. (2008). Bird species richness and abundance in different forest types in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Ostrich (76): 81-83


Ntiba, M.J. and Gichuki, N.N. (2008). Impacts of global climate change on coastal ecosystems of Kenya. . Samaki News 5(1): 44-46.


Lukhoba, C.W. & Gichuki, N.N. (eds), 2007 Linking Taxonomy to Conservation. Botanical and Zoological Network in Eastern Africa. Nairobi: Global Environment Facility & United Nations Development Programme. Pp. 35.


Ndiritu, G.G., Gichuki, N.N., & Triest, L. (2006). Distribution of epilithic diatoms in response to environmental conditions in an urban tropical stream, Central Kenya. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15: 3267-3293.


Gichuki N.N. and Githaiga, J.M (2006). Fundamentals of Ecology.  A Handbook for Distance Learners in Bachelor of Education (Science). Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya.


Githaiga, J.M and Gichuki N.N (2006). Biostatistics.  A Handbook for Distance Learners in Bachelor of Education (Science). Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya.


Odada, E. O., Orago, D. O., Ochola, W., Ntiba, M., Wandiga, S. O., Gichuki, N.N & Oyieke, H.A. (Eds.). Proceedings of World Lakes Conference, Volume I and Volume II, UNEP Regional Office for Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.


Gichuki, N.N., Oyieke, H.A and Terer T. (2005). Status and root causes of biodiversity loss in the eastern Rift Valley lakes, Kenya. In: Odada, E. O., Orago, D. O., Ochola, W., Ntiba, M., Wandiga, S. O., Gichuki, N.N & Oyieke, H.A. (eds.). World Lakes Conference, Pages 511-517., Nairobi, Kenya.


Matagi, S. & Gichuki, N.N., (2005). Ecology of South Eastern Rift Valley Lakes and their Watersheds. In: Michelle L. Thieme, Robin Abell, Melanie L.J. Stiassny and Paul Skelton (Eds). Freshwater Eco-regions of Africa and Madagascar. Worldwide Fund for Nature: Island Press, Washington.


Njagi, E. Abebe Getahun and Gichuki, N.N. (2005). Socio-economic aspects of Lake Jipe fisheries, Kenya.   In: Kamondo, B., Malo, M., Ochuodho, T. and Opanga, O. (Eds). Biodiversity Research for Livelihood Support and Food Security: Journal of Dry Land Research, (4): Pages: 95-100.


Ndaruga, A.M., Ndiritu, G.G. Gichuki, N.N. & Wamicha, W.N. (2004). Impact of Water Quality on Macro-invertebrate Assemblages along a Tropical Stream in Kenya. African Journal of Ecology, 42: 208-216.


Terer, T. and Gichuki, N.N. 2004. Community drought coping strategies, tactics and challenges to sustainable biodiversity management in dry lands with special reference to the Maasai and Turkana people of Kenya. Journal of Dry Land Biodiversity (3): 67-77.


Terer, T., Ndiritu G.G. and Gichuki, N. N. 2004.Socio-economic values and traditional strategies of managing wetland resources in Lower Tana River, Kenya. Hydrobiologia, 527 (1): 3-14.


Gichuki N.N. & Macharia J.M. 2003.  Participation of local communities in the management of wetland resources in semi-arid areas in Kenya.  In: Lemons, J.D., R. Victor & Schaffer D. (eds.) Conserving Biodiversity in Arid Regions. Kluwer Academic Publishers pp 87-103. Third World Academy of Sciences.


Gichuki N.N. 2001.  Impact of agricultural production on wetlands in Africa.  In: Finlayson, M. (ed.) Wetlands in a Changing World. Wetlands International. Wengeningen, Nertherlands. p. 13-17.  


Gichuki, N.N. 2000. Influence of breeding on foraging behaviour and diet of crowned cranes. Ostrich 71 (1&2):74-79.


Gichuki, N.N. (2000). Contribution of indigenous knowledge to the advancement of ornithology: Old ways to the future. In: Adams, N.J. & Slotow, R.H. (eds), 22nd International Ornithological Congress, 1337-1338.


Gichuki. C.M., & Gichuki, N.N. (2000). Comparative ecology and morphology of snipes (Family Scolopacidae) in Africa. In: Rheinwald, G. (ed). Isololated Vertebrate Communities in the Tropics. Bonn Zoological Monographs, 46: 199-207.


Nyingi, D.W. In press. Guide to the common freshwater fishes of Kenya. Moran Publishers, Nairobi, Kenya


Nyingi D.W. and Agneses J.F. 2012. Phylogeography of the Nile Tilapia in Africa. Lambert Academic Publishers.


De Vos L, Nyingi D.W., Nguku J. and Gathua J. Wetlands and Fisheries Inventory of the Tana River Primate Reserve, 2000.GEF project report on Biodiversity inventory of the Tana River Primate Reserve.


Nyingi D., Aman R., De Vos L., & Agnse J.-F. 2009. Genetic evidence of an unknown and endangered native natural population of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758) in Loboi swamp (Kenya). Aquaculture, 2009, 297 (1-4), p. 57-63.


Nyingi D., Agnse J.F. 2007. Recent Introgressive hybridization revealed by exclusive mtDNA transfer from O. leucostictus (Trewavas, 1933) to O. niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Lake Baringo (Kenya).  Journal of Fish Biology (2007)


Agnse J.F., Gourne B. & Nyingi D. 2007. Functional microsatellite and possibleselective sweep in natural populations of the black-chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron (Teleostei, Cichlidae). Marine Genomics. Volume 1, Issues 3-4, September-December 2008, Pages 103-107.


Nyingi, D.W, Gichuki,N. & Ogada,M.O.(2013).Freshwater Ecology of Kenyan Highlands and Lowlands.In Paolo Paron,Daniel Olago and Christian Thine Omuto(Eds.)Development in Earth Surface Processes(pp.199-218).Amsterdam.Elsevier


Fredrick Tamooh, Karel Van den Meersche, Filip Meysman, Trent. R. Marwick, Alberto V. Borges, Roel Merckx, Frank Dehairs, Sabine Schmidt, Judith Nyunja and Steven  Bouillon. (In Press). Distribution and origin of suspended sediments and organic carbon pools in the Tana River Basin, Kenya. Biogeosciences Discuss


Nyunja J., Ntiba M., Bouillon, S., Onyari, J., Mavuti, K. and Soertaert, K. (2009). Carbon sources supporting a diverse fish community in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Gazi Bay, Kenya). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 83: 333 - 341.


Bouillon S., Abril, G., Borges, A.V., Dehairs, F., Govers, G., Hughes, H., Merckxl R., Meysman, F.J.R., Nyunja, J., Osburn, C. and Middelburg, J.J. (2009). Distribution, origin and cycling of carbon in the Tana River (Kenya): a dry season basin-scale survey from headwaters to the delta. Biogeosciences Discuss 6: 5959 - 6023. 


Mavuti K. M., J. A. Nyunja and E.O. Wakwabi (2004).  Trophic Ecology of Common Fish Species in Mtwapa Creek, Kenya.  Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Sciences 3 (2): 179 - 187. 


Nyunja J. A., K. M. Mavuti and E. O. Wakwabi (2002).  The Trophic Ecology of Sardinella gibbosa (Pisces: Clupeidae) and Atherinomorous lacunosus (Pisces: Atherinidae) in Mtwapa Creek and Wasini Channel, Kenya. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Sciences 1(2): 181 - 189.


Koyo A., R. Ndetei, R. Odongo, A. Nyangwara and J. Nyunja (2004). Biodiversity Indicators for National Use (Freshwater Ecosystems). Report submitted to UNEP-WCMC.


Duvail S., Mwakalinga A.B, EijkelenburgA., Hamerlynck O., Kindinda K., Majule A., In press, Jointly thinking the post-dam future: exchange of local and scientific knowledge on the lakes of the Lower Rufiji, Tanzania. Hydrological Sciences Journal.


Leauthaud C., Duvail S., Hamerlynck O., Paul J.L., Cochet H. Nyunja J., Albergel J., Grunberger O. 2013. Floods and livelihoods: impact of changing water resources on wetland agro-ecological production systems in the Tana River Delta, Kenya, Global Environmental Change, 23, 252 - 263.


Leauthaud C., Duvail S., Belaud G., Moussa R., Grunberger O., and Albergel J.  2012. Floods and wetlands: combining a water-balance model and remote-sensing techniques to characterize hydrological processes of ecological importance in the Tana River Delta (Kenya). Hydrology and Earth System Science Discussions, 9, 52.


Hamerlynck O., Luke Q., Nyange T.M., Duvail S. & Leauthaud C. 2012. Range Extension, Imminent Threats and Conservation Options for Two Endangered Primates: the Tana River Red Colobus Procolobus rufomitratus rufomitratus (Peters, 1879) and the Tana River Mangabey Cercocebus galeritus (Peters, 1879) in the Lower Tana Floodplain and Delta, Kenya. African Primates, 7(2): 211-217 


Duvail S., Madard C., Hamerlynck O., Nyingi W.D. 2012. Land and water grabbing in an East African coastal wetland: the Tana Delta case study. Water Alternatives 5(2): 322-343.


Paul J.L. Duvail S. Hamerlynck O. 2011 - Appropriation des ressources « naturelles » et criminalisation des communauts paysannes : le cas du Rufiji (Tanzanie). Civilisations, 60-1: 143-175.


Hamerlynck, O., Duvail, S., Vandepitte, L., Kindinda, K., Nyingi, D.W., Paul, J.-L., Yanda, P.Z., Mwakalinga, A.B., Mgaya, Y.D. & J. Snoeks 2011. To connect or not to connect “ floods, fisheries and livelihoods in the Lower Rufiji floodplain lakes, Tanzania. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 56 (8) : 1436-1451.


Depraetere M., Pavoine S., Jiguet F., Gasc A., Duvail S., Sueur J., 2012. Monitoring animal diversity using acoustic indices: Implementation in a temperate woodland. Ecological Indicators, Ecological Indicators 13 (2012) :46 - 54


Duvail S., Madard C., Paul JL., 2010. Les communautés locales face aux grands projets damanagement des zones humides côtières en Afrique de Lâ Est. Politique Africaine n°117, mars 2010, pp. 149-172. (Base Horizon : fdi:010050072)


Hamerlynck O., Nyunja J., Luke Q., Nyingi D., Lebrun D., Duvail S., 2010. The communal forest wetland, rangeland and agricultural landscape mosaics of the Lower Tana, Kenya: a socio-ecological entity in peril. In “Sustainable use of Biological Diversity in Socio-Ecological Production Landscapes, Background to the Satoyama Initiative for the benefit of biodiversity and human well-being”. Convention on Biological Diversity Technical Series n° 52, 184 p. pp. 54-62. 


Dumas, D. Mietton, M., Hamerlynck, O., Pesneaud, F., Kane, A., Coly, A., Duvail, S. and Baba, M.L.O. 2010. Large Dams and Uncertainties: The Case of the Senegal River (West Africa), Society & Natural Resources, 23: 11, pp. 1108-1122.


Duvail S., Mwakalinga A.B., Eijkelenburg A., Hamerlynck O., 2009, « Hydrological modelling of the floodplain-adjacent lakes in the Lower Rufiji (Tanzania)» Actes de la Conference internationale « Implementing Environmental Water Allocations », Port Elizabeth, Afrique du Sud.  23-26 favrier 2009.


Sueur, J., Pavoine, S., Hamerlynck, O. & Duvail, S. 2008. Rapid Acoustic Survey for Biodiversity Appraisal. PLoS ONE 3(12), pp 1-9 :e4065doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004065 (Base Horizon : fdi:010045288).


Duvail S., Hamerlynck O., Nandi R. XL., Mwambeso P., Elibariki R., 2006. Participatory mapping for local management of natural resources in villages of the Rufiji District (Tanzania). Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries (EJISDC), n°25 : 1-6 (Base Horizon : fdi:010045885).


Duvail S., Hamerlynck O., 2007. The Rufiji River flood: plague or blessing? International Journal of Biometeorology. Special issue on climate perception. Vol. 52, n°1, pp 33-42. (Base Horizon : fdi:010045289).


Duvail S., Hogan R., Mwambeso P., Nandi R., Elibariki R., Hamerlynck O., 2005. Apport de la cartographie   la gestion locale des ressources renouvelables dans les villages du District du Rufiji (Tanzania). Norois, 196 : 51-66. (Base Horizon : fdi:010035521)


Hamerlynck O., Duvail S., Ould Messaoud B. & Benmergui M., 2005. The restoration of the Lower Delta of the Senegal River, Mauritania (1993-2004) In Symoens J.-J.(Ed.); Coastal Ecosystems of West Africa, Biological Diversity – Resources – Conservation. Proceedings at the Conference at the Belgian Academy of Sciences, Brussels, 195-210 (Base Horizon: fdi:010046496). 


Duvail S., 2004. Water management and resource use in eastern African wetlands. Pangea, n° 41/42 : 57-60. (Base Horizon : fdi:010045872)


Hamerlynck O. & Duvail S., 2004. Breeding of Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii in Mafia Island Marine Park, Tanzania. Scopus 24 : 46-47.


Duvail S., Hamerlynck O., 2003. Mitigation of negative ecological and socio-economic impacts of the Diama dam on the Senegal River Delta wetland (Mauritania), using a model based decision support system. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7 (1) : 133-146.


Duvail S., Hamerlynck O., Ould Baba M.L., 2002. Une alternative a  la gestion des eaux du fleuve Sénégal ?, In Bergkamp G. Pirot J. Y. et Hostettler S. "Integrated Wetlands and Water Resources Management": 89-97


Ould Baba M.L., Duvail S., Hamerlynck O., Semega B.M., 2002. Impacts des amanagements hydrauliques racents du fleuve Sénégal sur la plaine d’inondation  du  bas-delta mauritanien : Suivi et modélisation de la gestion des eaux dans le Parc National du Diawling,  In Bergkamp G. Pirot J. Y. et Hostettler S. "Integrated Wetlands and Water Resources Management" : 79-87.


Hamerlynck, O. & Duvail, S., 2002. Managed flood releases and livelihoods in the Mauritanian Lower Delta of the Senegal River. IUCN Commission on Ecosystem Management


Gourbesville Ph, Duvail S., Mietton M., 2001. Spatially-oriented methodology for management of complex hydro-environments: the Senegal delta situation, In : Schumann A. H., Acreman M. C., Davis R., Marino M. A., Rosbjerg D.& Xia Jun (Eds.) "Regional Management of Water Resources", Proceedings of the Sixth IAHS Scientific Assembly at Maastricht, The Netherlands, July 2001, IAHS Publ. no. 268, 2001 : 207–214.


Duvail S., Mietton M., Gourbesville P., 2001. Gestion de l'eau et interactions Société-Nature. Le cas du delta du Sénégal en rive mauritanienne, Natures Sciences Sociétés, vol. 9, n°2 : 5-16.  


Duvail S., Gourbesville Ph., Mietton M., 2000. Interest of spatial oriented model for complex hydro-environments management. Application of MIKE 11 GIS in the Senegal delta, Proceedings of the 4th Hydroinformatics International Conference, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA, 23-27 July 2000. 


Hamerlynck O., Ould Baba M.L., Duvail S., 1999. The Diawling National Park, Mauritania : Joint Management for the rehabilitation of a degraded coastal Wetland, Vida Silvestre Neotropical, Vol. 7, n°1 : 59-70.


Duvail S., Mietton M., Hamerlynck O., 1998. L’après-barrage dans le delta mauritanien : scénarios de gestion des eaux et modèles de développement, in Mainet G., édit.scient., "Iles et littoraux tropicaux", Actes des VIIèmes Journées de Géographie Tropicale, septembre 1997, Ouest–Editions, Presses Académiques, Bordeaux, tome II, 708 p. : 681-694.


Hamerlynck O. and Duvail S., 2003. The Rehabilitation of the Lower Delta of the Senegal River in Mauritania, Fielding the Ecosystem Approach. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 88 p. + annexes (version anglaise). 


Hamerlynck O. et Duvail S., 2003. La restauration du delta du fleuve Sénégal en Mauritanie, Une application de l’approche écosystémique. UICN, Gland, Suisse and Cambridge, Royaume Uni. 88 p. + annexes (version française). 


Lebrun D., Hamerlynck O., Duvail S., Nyunja J. 2010. The importance of flexibility: an analysis of the large-scale Tana Delta irrigation project in Kenya, implemented under an estate system. In Calas B. and Mumma Martinon C.A. (eds) “Shared Waters, Shared Opportunities”, IFRA and Hakimani College. pp. 261-282


Hamerlynck O., Duvail S., Hoag H., Paul J.L.,Yanda P. 2010. The large-scale irrigation potential of the Lower Rufiji Floodplain (Tanzania): Reality or persistent myth? In Calas B. et Mumma Martinon C.A. (eds) “Shared Waters, Shared Opportunities”, IFRA and Hakimani College, pp. 219-234.


Hamerlynck, O. & Duvail, S. 2008. Case Study 4: Ecosystem restoration and livelihoods in the Senegal River Delta, Mauritania, pp 68-77. In R.J. Fisher, Stewart Maginnis, W.J. Jackson, Edmund Barrow and Sally Jeanrenaud. Linking Conservation and Poverty reduction: Landscapes, People and Power. London: Earthscan. 146 p.


Mietton M., Dumas D., Hamerlynck, O., Kane A., Coly A., Duvail S., Ould Daddah  M., Ould Baba M.L. 2008. Le bas-delta du fleuve Sénégal. Une gestion de l’eau dans l’incertitude chronique,  pp 321 - 336. In Incertitude & Environnement, La fin des certitudes scientifiques sous la direction de Paul Allard, Dennis Fox et Bernard Picon. Ecologie Humaine / Edisud, 480 p.


Duvail, S. & Hamerlynck, O. 2006. Crues artificielles et gestion intégrée des basses vallées des fleuves africains. Les exemples du fleuve Sénégal (Afrique de l’Ouest) et du fleuve Rufiji (Afrique de l’Est). In : Chaussade, J. & Guillaume, J. (Coord.). Pêche et aquaculture, pour une exploitation durable des ressources vivantes de la mer et du littoral, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, collection Espace et Territoires : 471-485. (Base Horizon : fdi:010041245) 


Duvail, S., Bergkamp, G., Baba, M.L. ould, Acreman, M. & Hamerlynck, O., 2002. Modélisation hydraulique et gestion sociale de l’eau. In: Orange D. et al. (Eds.), ‘Gestion Intégrée des Ressources Naturelles dans les Zones Inondables Tropicales’. IRD Editions, Paris, France. Collection Colloques & Séminaires. Pp. 815-834.(Base Horizona : fdi:010030354). 


McCauley, DJ, Keesing, F, Young, TP, Allan, BF & RM Pringle. 2006. Indirect effects of large herbivorous mammals on snakes in an African savanna. Ecology87: 2657-2663.


Pringle, RM, Young,TP, Rubenstein, DI & DJ McCauley.2007. Herbivore-initiated interaction cascades and their modulation by productivity in an African savanna. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104: 193 - 197.


McCauley, DJ, Keesing, F.,Young,TP. & K. Dittmar. 2008.Effects of the removal of large herbivores on fleas of small mammals.J of Vec Ecol33:263-268.

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